Endemik Claoxylon Distribution Pattern and Bird Asociation in Lesser Sunda Island

16 Mar 2021 Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia, Asia Biodiversity | Plants

Adhy Widya Setiawan

Backgrounds
Lesser Sunda Islands have unique and endemic flora fauna biodiversity. Based on Airy Shaw (1982), there is an endemic flora in Sumbawa Island from familiy Euphorbiaceae namely Claoxylon colfsii Airy Shaw. Recent research Setiawan (2019) found one different endemic Claoxylon from Flores Island namely C. abbreviatum var. ovatifolium Setiawan.

Claoxylon in Sumbawa is known as Merutis and the young shoots can be eaten as a vegetable (Rahayu & Rustiami 2017). Beside food utility, Claoxylon has benefits in the field of feed and health, one of which is diabetes (Abdullah et al., 2012). Although has many benefits for humans and animals, Claoxylon population in LSI is not widely known, especially with the high threat of conversion of forest land use conversion to non-forest which also affects the population of Claoxylon species in the future.

Naturally many factors influence the demographics of a taxa. The pattern of regeneration and distribution of the genus Claoxylon is not known with certainty. And it is thought that it is strongly influenced by the pollinator and seed dispersing agent as its association. The color of the ripe Claoxylon seed membrane (arils) can attract seed dispersers from frugivore birds, one of which is the critical (CR) and endemic bird species, namely the yellow-crested cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea) (Hidayat 2014).

The importance of knowing the bird species associated with Claoxylon, distribution patterns and review of future regeneration are expected to be a recommendation and consideration for the conservation status of Claoxylon in the future.

Method
Field exploration is carried out by surveying the coordinates based on information obtained at the specimen’s label (Rugayah et al, 2004). Data to be taken is population status by recording the number of populations found, distribution and note all threats for this species. Sample collection will be carried out by making herbarium based on the procedure Djarwaningsih et al. (2002).

Samples will be taken to the Herbarium Bogoriense for morphological observation. Assessment of environmental conditions is carried out during field exploration. Environmental parameters are microclimate and physical condition of each observation location include position and altitude.

The records of birds association conducted with Vintage Point using kamouflage dome or tent. Time research will do from 05.00 am – 18.00 pm. The number of birds will be recorded, the time of arrival, the number of seeds eaten and the location where they were taken. Non-frugivorous bird species were also recorded using the point count method.